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Klm logo 150 eng 30sep03
Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V
, better known as KLM Royal Dutch Airlines is the national airline of the Netherlands.

KLMEdit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaKLM can also refer to Keystroke-Level Model. For the phone company, see KLM Telephone. For the village in India, see 4 KLM. For the golf tournament, see KLM Open. Not to be confused with KLMS.

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij
[1]
IATA

KL

ICAO

KLM

Callsign

KLM

Founded October 7, 1919 (92 years ago)
Commenced operations May 17, 1920
Hubs Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Frequent-flyer program Flying Blue
Airport lounge *KLM Crown Lounge
  • SkyTeam Lounge
Alliance SkyTeam
Subsidiaries *KLM Cityhopper*Martinair
Fleet size 113 (+11 orders) incl. cargo

excl. subsidaries

Destinations 138 (+1 future) excl. cargo

incl. subsidaries

Company slogan Een reis vol inspiratie ("Journeys of inspiration")
Parent company Air France-KLM
Headquarters Amstelveen, Netherlands
Key people Albert Plesman (Founder)P. F. Hartman (CEO)
Website www.klm.com

Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V., operating under the name KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, pronounced [ˌkɔnɪŋkləkə ˌlʏxtfaːrt maːtsxɑˈpɛi̯], literally "Royal Aviation Company"; usual English translation: Royal Dutch Airlines), is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands and is part of Air France-KLM. KLM's headquarters is in Amstelveen near its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. KLM operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 90 destinations. It is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name. As of 31 March 2010, it has 31,787 employees.[1]

The merger of KLM with Air France in May 2004 created Air France-KLM, which is incorporated under French law with headquarters at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Both Air France and KLM continue to fly under their distinct brand names. Air France-KLM is part of the SkyTeam alliance.

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 History

[edit] HistoryEdit

[edit] Pre World War IIEdit

[3][4]A 1919 advertisementKLM was founded on 7 October 1919,by Albert Plesman making it the oldest carrier in the world still operating under its original name, though the company stopped operating during the Second World War—apart from the operations in the Dutch Antilles in the Caribbean. The first KLM flight was on 17 May 1920, from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers. It was flown by an Aircraft Transport and Travel Airco DH.16, callsign G-EALU, piloted by Jerry Shaw. In 1920 KLM carried 440 passengers and 22 tons of freight. In 1921 KLM started scheduled services.

By 1926 it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Paris, London, Bremen, Copenhagen and Malmö, using primarily Fokker F2 & Fokker F.III.[2] [5][6]KLM's Douglas DC-2 aircraft Uiver after placing second in the MacRobertson Air Race from RAF Mildenhall, England, to Melbourne in 1934Intercontinental service to the Netherlands East Indies (today's Republic of Indonesia) started in 1929. This was for several years the world's longest scheduled air route. The service used Fokker F.VIIb, although the first non-scheduled KLM flight had been in 1924 by Fokker F7 registration H-NACC piloted by Van der Hoop. In 1930 KLM carried 15,143 passengers. The Douglas DC-2 was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934.

The first transatlantic KLM test flight was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F-XVIII "Snip." The first of the airline's Douglas DC-3 aircraft were delivered in 1936 and these replaced the DC-2s on the service via Batavia to Sydney. KLM were the first airline to serve Manchester's new Ringway airport from June 1938. KLM was the only civilian airline to operate the Douglas DC-5, using four examples in the Dutch East and West Indies between May 1940 and late 1941.

[edit] The 1940sEdit

When the Germans invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940 a number of KLM aircraft (mostly DC-3's and a few DC-2's) were en route to or from the Far East. Five DC-3s and one DC-2 managed to escape to England. During the entire war these KLM planes and KLM crew would fly the infamous Bristol-Lisbon scheduled passenger flights under BOAC registration. The PH-ALI 'Ibis', then registered as G-AGBB, was attacked three times by the Luftwaffe: on 15 November 1942 and 19 April 1943 and finally on 1 June 1943 (fatal to passengers and crew, see BOAC Flight 777). Some KLM aircraft with crew ended up in the Australia-Indonesia region, where they aided in transporting people who were escaping the Japanese aggression in that area. On 21 May 1946, KLM was the first continental European airline to launch scheduled service to New York.

[edit] The 1950sEdit

In 1950 KLM carried 356,069 passengers. On 25 July 1957, the airline introduced its first flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C - the last KLM aircraft with piston engines - which opened the first trans-polar route from Amsterdam via Anchorage to Tokyo on 1 November 1958. Each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was equipped with a winter survival kit, including a 7.62 mm selective-fire AR-10 carbine for use against polar bears in the event the plane was forced down onto the polar ice.[3]

[edit] The 1960s and 1970sEdit

Beginning in September 1959, the airline introduced the four-engined turboprop Lockheed Electra onto some of its European and Middle Eastern routes. In March 1960, KLM introduced the first Douglas DC-8 jet into its fleet. In 1966, KLM introduced the Douglas DC-9 on European and Middle East routes. [7][8]KLM Lockheed Electra turboprop airliner at Manchester in 1963The new terminal buildings at Schiphol Airport opened in April 1967 and in 1968, the stretched Douglas DC-8-63 entered service. With 244 seats it was the largest airliner of the time. KLM was the first airline to put the higher gross-weight Boeing 747-200B into service, starting in February 1971, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines, thus beginning the airline's era of widebody jets.

[edit] The 1980s and 1990sEdit

[9][10]This Northwest Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 was painted in a hybrid Northwest-KLM livery to advertise the alliance between the two airlines.In 1980, KLM carried 9,715,069 passengers. In 1983, it reached agreement with Boeing to convert some of its Boeing 747-200s to stretched upper deck configuration. The work started in 1984 at the Boeing factory in Everett, Washington and finished in 1986. The converted aircraft were called Boeing 747-200SUD, which the airline operated in addition to Boeing 747-300s. In June 1989, KLM introduced the Boeing 747-400. Later that year, in July, KLM acquired 20 per cent of Northwest Airlines, starting an alliance between the two airlines. In 1990, KLM carried 16,000,000 passengers. In March 1994, KLM and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes, and, in July 1995, KLM introduced its Boeing 767-300ER.

[edit] The 2000sEdit

In March and June 2002, KLM announced it would renew its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing 767s, Boeing 747-300s and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 with Boeing 777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. Some 747s will be first to retire. The MD-11s will remain in service until 2014/2015. The first Boeing 777 was received on 25 October 2003, entering commercial service on the Amsterdam–Toronto route, while the first Airbus A330-200 was introduced on 25 August 2005 and entered commercial service on the Amsterdam–Washington Dulles route. [11][12]A KLM Boeing 747-400 at Princess Juliana Airport in Sint Maarten (2007.In March 2007 KLM started using the Amadeus reservation system, along with partner Kenya Airways.

[edit] The 2010s to dateEdit

In September 2010 KLM announced that the passenger division of Martinair would be integrated within KLM. All personnel and routes will be transferred to KLM. By November 2011 Martinair will only consist of the cargo division and the maintenance division.

In March 2011 KLM and InselAir International InselAir have reached an agreement for mutual interline cooperation on Insel Air destinations, thus expanding their services to their passengers. As of March 27, 2011, passengers carrying a KLM ticket can now also fly to all Insel Air destinations. Passengers will be transported 'comfortably and quickly' on one ticket and with automatic baggage transfer via InselAirs hubs in Curacao and Sint Maarten. Due to this agreement, KLM passengers can now connect seamlessly and continue their flights to more and to different destinations via InselAir’s flights. Cities include Kingston (Jamaica), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, Port-au-Prince (Haiti) and Las Piedras (Venezuela).

On 11 November 2011, KLM announced that it will end non-stop flights to Manila, Philippines from April 2012; the flights will instead be flown with a stop in Hong Kong.[4]

[edit] Corporate affairs and identityEdit

[edit] Head officeEdit

[13][14]KLM company head office in AmstelveenKLM's head office is in Amstelveen,[5][6] on a 16-acre (6.5 ha) site near Schiphol Airport. By 1968 KLM decided that its new head office would be located there and began plans to construct the building, scheduled to be completed at the end of 1970.[7] Previously the airline's head office was on the property of Schiphol Airport in Haarlemmermeer.[8]

[edit] SubsidiariesEdit

[15][16]A KLM Cityhopper Fokker 70 lands at Leeds Bradford Airport, England[17][18]KLM Boeing 777-200ER at Montreal (2009)*KLM Cityhopper (formerly: NLM CityHopper)

[edit] Former subsidiariesEdit

[19][20]KLM Asia Boeing 747-400 Combi registration PH-BFC "City of Calgary"[21][22]Air France-KLM[23][24]===[edit] KLM Asia=== KLM Asia (荷蘭亞洲航空公司 Hanyu Pinyin: Hélán Yàzhōu Hángkōng Gōngsī) was a wholly KLM owned subsidiary, registered in Taiwan, Republic of China. The airline was established in 1995 in order to operate flights to Taipei, without compromising the traffic rights held by KLM for destinations in the People's Republic of China. KLM Asia is no longer in operation but its aircraft still fly in the KLM Asia livery. KLM Asia was one of a number of airline subsidiaries flying under the "Asia" name with the same purpose of flying to Taiwan; these also included Japan Asia Airways (a Japan Airlines subsidiary), Air France Asie, British Asia Airways and others.

The livery of KLM Asia does not feature Dutch national symbols, such as the flag of the Netherlands, nor does it use KLM's stylised Dutch Crown logo, instead featuring a special KLM Asia logo. KLM Asia has 6 Boeing 747-400 Combi aircraft (included in the KLM fleet as 747-400M).

[edit] MergerEdit

On 30 September 2003, Air France and KLM announced that they would in future be known as Air France-KLM. This entity was offered on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange on 5 May 2004. The merge with Air France marked the end of the oldest independent airline in the world. The Royal adjective was retained, and KLM's independent identity guaranteed to 2008, after which date its operations may be merged with those of the French company. As of November 2010, KLMs operations continued under its own titles. In the interim, it did not appear that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines (since merged with Delta Air Lines), would be affected. Both KLM and Northwest joined the SkyTeam alliance in September 2004. Prior to the merger, KLM was listed on the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, New York, and Paris.

[edit] Presidents - CEOsEdit

[edit] KLM Delft Blue housesEdit

[25][26]Selection of KLM Delft Blue HousesSince 1952, KLM has presented its long-haul first-class passengers with small Delftware, blue-and-white porcelain reproductions of old Dutch canal houses, filled with jenever.[9] In 1993, amidst the change-over from three to two cabins on its long-haul service, these canal houses (in Dutch, "huisjes") were made available to its "WorldBusiness Class" passengers.

Initially, these houses, ranging in size from 5 to 11 cm. (about 2 to 4 inches) were filled with Rynbende jenever (a Dutch liquor and precursor to gin made from juniper berries); once Rynbende (Simon Rynbende & Sons) was acquired by Henkes, the houses were filled with Henkes jenever, and, when that company was acquired by Bols, they became filled with Bols jenever.[10]

The impetus for these houses was a rule aimed at curtailing a previously widespread practice of offering significant incentives to passengers by limiting the value of gifts given by airlines to 75 US cents; however, no limit was placed on the provisions of duty-free liquor, so KLM was able to provide this more-valuable gift, camouflaged as liquor.[11] Prior to giving out these Delft-blue liquor-filled houses, KLM gave Delft-blue tiles as gifts, but these tiles broke the 75 cent limits.



There are 90 different houses as of 2009, with an additional house added every year on the 7th of October; this being the anniversary of KLM's founding (KLM, the world's oldest commercial airline, being 90 years old in 2009), each numbered and representing the number of years KLM has been in operation. Each year, a new house receives the next sequential number. All houses are reproductions of historic houses in the Netherlands or its overseas dependencies, although the specific location of every archetype of some of the first ten huisjes was not recorded.

In addition to the 90 standard houses, sealed and filled with jenever (with numerous variations on the wording on the bottom or back of the houses in different manufacturing batches and with different jenever manufacturer names), there are variants that are not filled with gin, which are distributed to passengers on certain long-haul flights to Islamic countries who forbid import or export of liquor. In 2006 when, in response to terrorist activities, liquids were banned or restricted on various flights, KLM's trans-Atlantic flights to the United States briefly also offered the same liquor-free huisjes. Until the early 1980s, the houses distributed on those routes were packaged as "ashtrays" with an open chimney and a semi-circular hole cut into the rear of the house, ostensibly for a cigarette.

Additional, larger, special Delftware have periodically been offered to VIPs and honeymoon couples; for most of the 1980s and 1990s, this was a model of the Royal Palace; since 2003, this was the "Waag". These are particularly prized by collectors and at auctions they are often valued at about

Edit

In addition to its main logo, which was designed in 1961 by F.H.K. Henrion and further revised in 1991 by Chris Ludlow of Henrion, Ludlow & Schmidt,[12] KLM has shown its alliance status in its branding, including the SkyTeam alliance (2004–present) and "Worldwide Reliability" with Northwest Airlines (1993–2002).

[27]
1961–
[28]
1993–2002
[29]
2004–
[30]
2011–

[edit] DestinationsEdit

Main article: KLM destinationsKLM is the only carrier on 66 of the routes it operates. On 43 routes it faces competition from one other airline, whereas on 14 routes it faces competition from two other airlines. Finally, on 3 routes it faces competition from three airlines and competition from four and five other airlines is faced by 1 route each. In the early 2000's, KLM terminated all routes to Australia.

[edit] FleetEdit

As of 10-2011, the KLM fleet consists of the following aircraft with an average age of 9.0 years:[13][14] [31][32]KLM MD-11[33][34]KLM Airbus A330-200 at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport{| border="1" cellpadding="3" class="toccolours" style="border-collapse:collapse;text-align:center" ! colspan="8" style="background:#1d3d73;"|KLM Fleet |- style="background:#1d3d73;" ! rowspan="2" style="width:180px;"|Aircraft ! rowspan="2" style="width:40px;"|In Service ! rowspan="2" style="width:40px;"|Orders ! class="unsortable" colspan="4"|Passengers ! rowspan="2" style="width:200px;"|Notes |- style="background:#1d3d73;" ! style="width:25px;"|C ! style="width:25px;"|Y+ ! style="width:25px;"|Y ! style="width:25px;"|Total |- |Airbus A330-200 |11 |0 |30 |35 |178 |243 | |- |Airbus A330-300 |0 |4 |30 |40 |224 |294 |2012-02, 2012-03, 2012-04, 2013-01 |- |Boeing 737-700 |18 |0 |45 |0 |84 |129 | |- |Boeing 737-800 |23 |4 |57 |0 |114 |171 |2013-04, 2013-05, 2013-08, 2013-10 |- |Boeing 737-900 |5 |0 |51 |0 |138 |189 | |- |Boeing 747-400 |6 |0 |42 |38 |335 |415 | |- |Boeing 747-400M |16 |0 |42 |38 |195 |275 | |- |Boeing 777-200ER |15 |0 |35 |34 |249 |318 | |- |Boeing 777-300ER |5 |3 |35 |40 |350 |425 |2012-06, 2012-07, 2013-05 |- |McDonnell Douglas MD-11 |10 |0 |24 |34 |227 |285 |Replaced by B787-9 from 2015 |- ! colspan="8" style="background:#1d3d73;"|KLM Cargo Fleet |- |Boeing 747-400ERF |4 |0 | class="unsortable" colspan="4"|112,760 kg |All leased to Martinair Cargo |- !Total !113 !11 ! class="unsortable" colspan="4"| ! |} KLM is currently in the midst of a major fleet renewal program. The complete narrow-body fleet has been replaced by next-generation aircraft. In the near future, KLM will start to renew the wide-body fleet. The new Boeing 787-9 and Airbus A350-900 have been ordered by the Air France-KLM group to replace KLM's aging B747-400's and MD-11's. The Boeing customer code for KLM is 06. The Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft are delivered with Boeing customer code K2, used for Transavia.

[edit] Fleet historyEdit

Over the years, KLM operated the following aircraft types:[15]

KLM fleet (1980–present)
Aircraft Introduced Retired Airbus A330-300 2012
Boeing 737-700 2008
Boeing 777-300ER 2008
Airbus A330-200 2005
Boeing 777-200ER 2003
Boeing 737-900 2001
Boeing 737-800 1999
Boeing 767-300ER 1995 2007
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 1993
Boeing 747-400 1989
Boeing 737-400 1989 2011
Boeing 737-300 1986 2011
Airbus A310 1983 1997
Boeing 747-300 1983 2004
KLM fleet (1940–1979)
Aircraft Introduced Retired McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 1972 1995
Boeing 747-200 1971 2004
Douglas DC-9 1966 1989
Douglas DC-8 1960 1985
Lockheed L-188 Electra 1959 1969
Vickers Viscount 1957 1966
Douglas DC-7 1953 1966
Lockheed Super Constellation L-1049 1953 1966
Convair 340 1953 1964
Convair 240 1948 1959
Douglas DC-6 1948 1963
Douglas DC-4 1946 1958
Douglas Skymaster C-54 1945 1959
Douglas DC-5 1940 1941
KLM fleet (1920–1939)
Aircraft Introduced Retired Lockheed Super Electra-14 1938 1948
Douglas DC-3 1936 1964
Fokker F.XXXVI 1935 1939
Fokker F.XXII 1935 1939
Douglas DC-2 1934 1946
Fokker F.XX 1933 1936
Fokker F.XVIII 1932 1946
Fokker F.XII 1931 1936
Fokker F.IX 1930 1936
Fokker F.VIII 1927 1940
Fokker F.VII 1925 1936
Fokker F.III 1921 1930
Fokker F.II 1920 1924
De Havilland DH.16 1920 1924

[edit] CabinEdit

KLM offers business class and economy class on all of its aircraft. On longhaul aircraft, a third class called 'economy comfort class' is offered. On shorthaul aircraft, Business Class is called Europe Business Class, while on longhaul aircraft Business Class is called World Business Class.

[edit] World Business ClassEdit

[35][36]Boeing 777-200ER old style World Business ClassWorld Business Class offers a 60-inch (1.5 m) pitch on all longhaul aircraft. All aircraft offer a 176 degree angled lie-flat seat with a 10.4-inch (26 cm) TV monitor with AVOD (Audio Video on Demand), email/text messaging, a privacy canopy, a massage function and laptop power ports. KLM's newest addition to the fleet, the Boeing 777-300ER features the new Business Class seats based on the Business seats of merger partner Air France. All WBC seats offer personal reading lamps, leg/foot rests and personal telephones (at the back of the controller)

Pre-departure facilities include a fully flexible reservation (except WBC Holiday Fare which may have restrictions)[16] check-in desks, lounge access, priority boarding and 125% to 175% Flying Blue miles.[17] Onboard, passengers are given a three course meal with menus, pre-departure beverages and snacks, which are available throughout the flight.

[edit] Europe Business ClassEdit

Europe Business Class replaced Europe Select on 27 March 2011. It is KLM's new premium product on shorter sectors. It offers lounge access, a 33-inch (84 cm) pitch with more recline, in-seat power output on all Boeing 737-700, -800, -900, newspapers, a meal service on board (hot or cold meals depend on the length of the flight), more personal space (free middle seat), priority boarding, extra baggage allowance, 250% Flying Blue miles and fully flexible booking.

[edit] Economy ClassEdit

[37][38]Boeing 777-200ER Economy ClassEconomy Class offers a 31" pitch on all long haul aircraft except the Airbus A330-200, which offers a 32" pitch.

On short haul European flights on KLM and KLM Cityhopper, aircraft have no in flight entertainment and contains a 31" seatpitch. Passengers flying Economy Class long-haul routes outside of Europe receive a hot meal service (often more than one depending on the flight duration), with real metal cutlery. Passengers flying within Europe in KLM Economy Class receive a snack to suit the time of day. Freshly prepared sandwiches made the day of flight are served on most morning flights. Drinks (including alcohol) are free on KLM for all passengers, with the exception of champagne.[18] [39][40]Boeing 777-300ER Economy ClassIn 2010, KLM has completed the interior refurbishment of its Boeing 747-400 fleet. This update includes AVOD/PTV in Economy Class with a private screen for each seat and inflight information. KLM's Boeing 747-400s and 777-300ERs economy seating are ten-abreast (3-4-3), the 777-200ERs and MD-11s are nine-abreast (3-3-3), while the A330s are eight abreast (2-4-2).

[edit] Economy ComfortEdit

Economy Comfort is offered on all intercontinental flights. It provides a greater seat pitch at up to 35", and greater recline, up to 7", than regular economy seats, but the same luggage allowance and in-flight service applies. There is no priority (dis-)embarking, but since the Economy Comfort zone is located in the front of Economy section of the aircraft, KLM does advertise quick disembarkation as an advantage of Economy Comfort.

On intracontinental flights, Economy Comfort is not offered as such. Instead, some seats with extra legroom such as exit-row seats are sold at a premium. This would cost between EUR 20 to 70 per flight.

Both intercontinental and intracontinental seats can be reserved by any passenger holding any economy class ticket. The full Economy Comfort service is free for passengers with a full-fare ticket or members of Flying Blue at the Platinum or higher level. For Flying Blue Silver and SkyTeam Elite Plus members, a discount applies. The seats with extra legroom on intracontinental flights are free for Flying Blue members with Gold or higher status.[19] This service is also available for free for Delta SkyMiles members at the Platinum or higher level if the booking was made with a Delta (DL) flight number.

It should be noted that some aircraft with a flexible European Business Class cabin size (which can be changed using a movable curtain divider), the first few rows also offer a small amount of extra legroom due to their double use as EBC seats. No extra charge applies for these seats.

[edit] Codeshare agreementsEdit

As of March 2011, KLM has codeshare agreements with the following airlines, beside SkyTeam members:[20]

KLM codeshares[21]
Airline
Aer Lingus (AMS-DUB)
Air Astana (Europe and Asia routes)
Air Baltic (Europe and Middle East routes)
Alaska Airlines (USA and Canada routes)
Bangkok Airways (Asia routes)
CityJet (part of Air France-KLM group; Europe routes)
Comair (oneworld affiliate member; South-Africa domestic and regional Southern Africa routes)
Copa Airlines (future Star Alliance member; US routes)
Cyprus Airways (AMS-LCA/PFO)
Estonian Air (Estonia, Europe, North Africa, Arabian States and Mediterranean routes)
Garuda Indonesia (future SkyTeam member; Indonesia, Asia, South West Pacific and Middle East routes)
KLM codeshares (continued)[21]
Airline
GOL (South America routes)
Gulf Air (Pakistan/Oman routes)
Jat Airways (Europe and Mediterranean routes)
KLM Cityhopper (Regional arm of KLM; Europe routes)
Malaysia Airlines (future Oneworld member; AMS-KUL)
Olympic Air (Greece routes)
Rossiya (Russia, CIS, Europe and Asia routes)
Sichuan Airlines (China routes)
Thalys (HSR; France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany routes)
Ukraine International Airlines (AMS-KBP)
WestJet (Canada routes)

[edit] Incidents and accidentsEdit

For sourcing and full list of accidents from 1943 see:Aviation safety database

This list does not include KLM cityhopper, which had two accidents: NLM CityHopper Flight 431 in 1981 and KLM Cityhopper Flight 433 in 1994.

The most notable accident in which a KLM flight has been involved was the 1977 Tenerife disaster. After this accident KLM flights have not led to fatalities.

Accidents involving fatalities

  • On 24 April 1923, Fokker F.III H-NABS departed Lympne for Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The aircraft was not heard of again. It was presumed to have crashed into the sea, killing the pilot and both passengers.[22]
  • On 22 August 1927, Fokker F.VIII H-NADU crashed near Sevenoaks, England. One crewmember was killed.[23]
  • On 20 December 1934, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed at Rutbah Wells, Iraq, killing all occupants. It participated in the Mac Robertson Air Race in October 1934 and won the handicap division. It had returned to the Netherlands in November and the crew were heroes. It was on its first flight after return from the race and was enroute to the Netherlands Indies carrying the Christmas mail.[24]
  • On 14 July 1935, KLM Fokker F.XXII PH-AJQ "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol, killing four crew and two passengers - 14 other occupants survived.[2]
  • On 20 July 1935, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AKG "Gaai" crashed in an Alpine pass in the San Bernardino Pass near Pian San Giacomo, killing all three crew and all ten passengers.[2]
  • On 9 December 1936, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AKL crashed into a house after taking off from Croydon Airport, London the accident killed 15 out of 17 on board the DC-2 (see 1936 KLM Croydon accident)
  • On 28 December 1941, KNILM Douglas DC-3, PK-ALN (formerly KLM PH-ALN) "Nandoe" was destroyed on the ground by Japanese fighters at Medan, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, killing all crew members and passengers.
  • On 1 June 1943, the BOAC Douglas DC-3 (formerly KLM PH-ALI) "Ibis" was shot down by eight German Junkers Ju-88 fighters over the Gulf of Biskay while on the scheduled route Lisbon-Bristol. All thirteen passengers and four KLM crewmembers perished. For more information see: BOAC Flight 777.
  • On 14 November 1946 - A KLM Douglas C-47 crashed at Schiphol Airport, caused by a failed landing in bad weather. All 21 passengers and the 5 crew were killed. One passenger was the Dutch writer Herman de Man.
  • On 26 January 1947, KLM Douglas Dakota PH-TCR crashed after takeoff from Copenhagen, killing all 22 onboard, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.[25]
  • On 20 October 1948, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TEN "Nijmegen" crashed near Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 40 aboard.
  • On 23 June 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TER "Roermond", piloted by Hans Plesman (the son of CEO Albert Plesman) crashed into the sea off Bari, killing 33 occupants.[26]
  • On 12 July 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TDF "Franeker" crashed into a 674 ft Ghatkopar hill near Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of the dead were American news correspondents.[27]
  • On 22 March 1952, a KLM Douglas DC-6 PH-TBJ "Koningin Juliana", crashed in Frankfurt, killing 42 of 47 occupants[28]
  • On 23 August 1954; a KLM Douglas DC-6B, PH-DFO "Willem Bontekoe", crashed between Shannon and Schiphol in the North Sea, 40 km from IJmuiden - all 21 passengers and crew died.
  • On 5 September 1954, Flight 633, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKY "Triton" ditched in the River Shannon after takeoff from Shannon Airport, Ireland. 28 out of 56 people on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed.
  • On 14 July 1957, KLM Super Constellation PH-LKT "Neutron" crashed in the sea near Biak, after takeoff from Mokmer airport at Biak on its way to Manila. The pilot made a low farewell flypass over the island, but the aircraft lost altitude, crashed into the sea and exploded. Nine crew and 49 passengers died; there were 10 survivors. See KLM Flight 844.
  • On 14 August 1958, KLM Flight 607-E, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKM "Hugo de Groot" en route from Amsterdam to New York, via Shannon Airport, crashed into the ocean 180 km off the coast of Co. Galway, Ireland. 91 passengers and 8 crew members perished.
  • On 25 October 1968, Douglas C-47A PH-DAA of KLM Aerocarto flew into Tafelberg Mountain, Suriname, following an engine failure whilst on a survey flight. The aircraft collided with the mountain in cloud, killing three of the five people on board.[29]
  • On 27 March 1977, Flight 4805, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUF, and Pan Am Flight 1736, a Boeing 747-121, N736PA, collided at Tenerife North Airport, Canary Islands, killing 583 people. The incident has the highest number of on-board fatalities (excluding ground fatalities) of any single accident in aviation history.

Notable incidents without fatalities

  • On 17 July 1935, KLM DC-2 PH-AKM "Maraboe" crashed near Bushehr, Iran. All occupants were rescued.[30]
  • On 15 November 1942, the escaped KLM DC-3 PH-ALI "Ibis", flying with a Dutch crew under BOAC's flag (G-AGBB) and later destroyed in the downing of Flight 777-A, was attacked by a single Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighter, but she was able to limp on to Lisbon where repairs were carried out. The damage sustained by cannon and machine gun fire included the port wing, engine nacelle and fuselage.
  • On 19 April 1943, the Ibis was again attacked at coordinates 46 North, 9 West, by a schwarm of six Bf 110 fighters. Captain Koene Dirk Parmentier evaded the attackers by dropping to 50 feet above the ocean and then climbing steeply into the clouds. The "Ibis" again sustained damage to the port aileron, shrapnel to the fuselage and a holed fuel tank. A new wingtip was flown to Lisbon to complete repairs. Despite these attacks, BOAC continued to fly the Lisbon–Whitchurch route.
  • On 6 November 1946, KLM Douglas DC-3 PH-TBO crashed near Shere as the flight was on approach to Croydon Airport after a flight from Amsterdam. None of the 20 passengers and crew were killed in the accident.[31][32]
  • On 23 March 1952, a KLM Lockheed Constellation, PH-TFF "Venlo", suffered a propeller failure and subsequent engine fire during landing in Bangkok. All 44 passengers and crew escaped shortly before the fire completely consumed the plane. A Thai ground crewman ran into the burning aircraft and returned with an infant who had been left behind.[33]
  • On 25 November 1973, KLM Flight 861, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUA "Mississippi" was hijacked over Iraq by Palestinian terrorists. The plane took off in Amsterdam and was bound for Tokyo. After 70 hours the plane made its final landing in Dubai. The passengers were released earlier in Malta. Everyone survived the hijack.
  • On 15 December 1989, KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747-400, PH-BFC flew through a volcanic plume causing nearly million worth of damage to the then brand-new aircraft. The plane landed in Anchorage, Alaska, with no reported injuries or fatalities.[34][35]
  • On 28 November 2004, KLM Flight 1673, a Boeing 737-400, PH-BTC had a birdstrike upon rotation from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The plane continued onwards to Barcelona International Airport, where the nose gear collapsed. No injuries or casualties; the aircraft was written off.

[edit] Corporate responsible issuesEdit

[edit] Alleged support to Nazi war criminalsEdit

KLM has been accused of helping Nazi war criminals to escape from Europe at the end of the Second World War. Suspected war criminals were forbidden by the Allies to leave Germany but historical research done by Dutch journalists show that KLM asked the Swiss authorities to allow some former Nazi to cross the borders without proper documents in order that they could then escape to South America. [36][37] KLM has always denied that it played such a role.[38]

[edit] PhilanthropyEdit

KLM started KLM AirCares in 1999. KLM AirCares is a programme that aids underprivileged children in developing countries that KLM flies to.[39]

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